Yann Martel


Pi 'nin Yaşamı

Yann Martel
Bookmark and Share

Anasayfaya
Eleştiri sayfasına

 


 

Editörün Notu:
2002 yılında Man Booker ödülünü kazanan İspanyol asıllı Yann Martel "Pi'nin Yaşamı" nda, alegorik olarak, bindiği gemi battıktan sonra bir filikada vahşı hayvanlarla başbaşa kalan kahramanından yola çıkar ve insanın inanç arayışını irdeler.

 

 

Sanatçının adı yok!
 

http://www.radikal.com.tr/

Kanadalı yazar Yann Martel'e 2002 yılında Britanya'nın en prestijli edebiyat ödülü Booker'ı getiren 'Pi'nin Yaşamı' adlı roman İnkılap Yayınevi'nden çıktı.

İSTANBUL - Kanadalı yazar Yann Martel'e 2002 yılında Britanya'nın en prestijli edebiyat ödülü Booker'ı getiren 'Pi'nin Yaşamı' adlı roman

İnkılap Yayınevi'nden çıktı. Aylin Yengin'in Türkçeye çevirdiği roman, fabl türünde yazılan, inanca dair bir macerayı konu alıyor. Kitabın kahramanı Pi Patel, Hindistan'ın Pondicherry kentindeki hayvanat bahçesini idare eden bir ailenin 16 yaşındaki oğlu olarak öne çıkıyor. Doğru inancı yakalamak uğruna tüm dinleri incelemeye ve cemaatlerinin mensubu olmaya çalışan Pi, bu durumu ailesi ve dini liderler fark edene kadar sürdürüyor.

Romanın yönü, Pi'nin babasının yeni bir yaşam beklentisiyle Kanada'ya göç etmeyi istemesiyle değişiyor. Ancak aileyi Kanada'ya götürecek yük gemisi, sefer esnasında Pasifik Okyanusu'nda alabora olup batıyor. Roman, bu noktadan sonra ilginçleşmeye başlıyor: Kazadan sekiz metrelik bir filikayla kurtulan Pi'nin dışında, aynı filikada 300 kiloluk bir Bengal Kaplanı da bulunuyor! Kitap, Pi'nin kaplanla geçirdiği 227 günün inanılmaz öyküsünü okurun belleğine armağan ediyor. Aç kaldığı sırada bu romana başladığını kitabın önsözünde itiraf eden Yann Martel'e göre 'Pi'nin Öyküsü', okurun Tanrı'ya inanmasını sağlıyor; veya neden inanmadığını sorgulayabilmesine yol açıyor. 'Pi'nin Öyküsü'nde Brezilyalı yazar Moacyr Scliar'ın 'Max and the Cats' kitabından 'fena halde esinlenmekle' suçlanan Martel, bu kitabı bildiğini ancak okumadığını belirtmişti. (Kültür Sanat)


ALINTILAR

Pi'nin Yaşamı-Yann Martel


http://www.felsefe.net/

-Hafızası herşeyin sözünü edemeyecek kadar yüklüydü.

-Tüm canlı varlıkların en cesuru ve en akıllısı olan insan maceraya atılıp bir yerden öbürüne gitmezse eğer, herkese yabancı olan, hiç kimseye borçlu olmayan, çok daha tutucu bir yaradılışa sahip bir hayvan bunu neden yapsın?

-Hayvanın gereksinmelerini karşıladığı sürece, doğal ya da inşa edilmiş bir yaşam bölgesi, hiç tartışmasız, bir bağıştır, tıpkı leoparın benekleri gibi.

-Şu an onu, tek var olduğu yer olan anılarımda ziyaret ediyorum.

-Dilleri, vahşi atları süren arabacılardı sanki.

-Sağlam zeminin oluşturduğu çalkantılı denizde yuvarlanıp dalgalanarak, yanımdan ayrıldı.

-Kuşkuyu bir hayat felsefesi olarak seçmek, hareketsizliği bir taşıma biçimi olarak seçmeye benzer.

-Dışarıdaki kötülük, içimizdeki kötülüğün özgür bırakılmış halidir.

-Kendini üstün görenlerin korumaları gereken Tanrı değil, kendileridir.

-Bu ses. Garip bir şekilde tanıdık, ama tanıdık bir şekilde de garip. Bir gülümsemenin beni sardığını hissettim.

-Herşey beklenilen şekilde gelişmedi, ama ne yapılabilir ki? Hayatı olduğu gibi kabul etmeli ve ondan elinizden geldiğince yararlanmalısınız.

-Neden sorumuzu, yanıtını bulabileceğimiz yerin ötesine fırlatamıyoruz? Yakalanacak o kadar az sayıda balık varken, bu denli büyük ağ niye?

-Canlandı ve suları güçlü ve cesur kulaçlarla yarmaya başladı.

-Yüreğim buz tutmuştu sanki. İçimi büyük bir üzüntü kaplamıştı. Ama dona kalmanın zamanı değildi. Şimdi eyleme geçmenin zamanıydı. İçimden bir ses yaşamı elden bırakmamamı, pes etmememi, sonuna dek mücadele etmemi söylüyordu. Bu sesin yüreğimi ne zaman ele geçirdiğini bilmiyorum.

-Cehennemdeyiz ve yine de ölümsüzlükten korkuyoruz.

-Doğa, insana heyecan dolu bir gösteri sunabiliyor. Sahne büyük, ışıklandırma duyguları kamçılayan cinsten, sayısız figüran var ve özel efektlere ayrılan bütçe sınırsız.

-Nezaketin dehşetle karşılaşması doğru değil.

-Varış yerin ölümse, sandala bin, bir sonraki durağımız orası. Birlikte oturabiliriz. İstersen pencere kenarındaki yeri alabilirsin. Ama manzara oldukça hüzünlü.

-O sabah ufuk bir yana yatmıştı, dudaklarım ise gülümsemeyle öbür yana.

-Böylesi bir şeyin gerçek olduğunu kabul etmek inanılmazdı, ama bu konu hakkında uzun süre kafa yorduktan ve çok sayıda düşünceyi ve görüş açısını bir araya getirdikten sonra, bunun bir düş, bir sanrı, bir yanılsama ya da buna benzer bir hata değil, güçsüz ve çok heyecanlı bir durumda görülmüş sağlam bir gerçek olduğu sonucuna varmıştım.

-Hangi çımacı, hayat kurtarmak gibi asil bir davranışın ardına sığınıp, fazladan biraz para kazanmayı düşünmezdi?

-Sağlıklı bir hayvandan daha tehlikeli olan tek şey, yaralı bir hayvandır.

-Korkuya ilgili bir şey söylemem gerek. Yaşamın tek gerçek rakibidir. Yalnızca korku hayatı yenebilir. Zeki, kalleş bir düşmandır, bunu çok iyi biliyorum. Namussuzdur, hiçbir kanuna ya da geleneğe saygısı yoktur, merhamet nedir, bilmez. Bulmakta hiç zorluk çekmediği en zayıf noktanızdan vurur sizi. İşe her zaman zihnininizden başlar. Kendinizi sakin, güvenli ve mutlu hiseetiğiniz bir anda. Sonra ılımlı bir kuşkunun kılığına bürünerek, tıpkı bir casus gibi beynininize süzülür. Kuşku inanmayışla karşılaşır ve inanmayış onu dışarıya atmaya çalışır. Ama inanmayış az silahlı bir askerdir. Kuşku onu kolayca alt eder. Endişelenmeye başlarsınız. Mantığınız sizin için mücadele eder. Güveninizi yeniden kazanırsınız. Mantık en son teknolojik silahlarla donanmıştır. Ama inanılmaz gibi görünse de, üstün taktiklerle ve yadsınmaz zaferlere karşın, mantık tuzağa düşürülür. Kendinizi giderek zayıf ve kararsız hissedersiniz. Kuşkunuz dehşete dönüşür.

-Korku kaçınmaya, hatta unutmaya çalıştığınız sözcüksüz bir karanlığa dönüşürse, sizi bozguna uğratan düşmanınızla hiç savaşmamış olduğunuzdan, kendinizi korkunun yeni saldırılarına açmış olursunuz.

-Kararlılık sahibi olmanız için acil ihtiyaçtan daha uygun birşey yoktur.


Booker, Martel'in
 

http://www.radikal.com.tr/

İngiltere'nin en prestijli edebiyat ödülü olarak kabul edilen Man Booker Ödülü'nü 'kurgu' dalında Kanadalı yazar Yann Martel kazandı.

PARİS - İngiltere'nin en prestijli edebiyat ödülü olarak kabul edilen Man Booker Ödülü'nü 'kurgu' dalında Kanadalı yazar Yann Martel kazandı. Yazar, ödüle layık bulunan romanı 'Life of Pi'de (Pi'nin Yaşamı) bir gemi enkazında yaşayan 16 yaşındaki Pi ile 200 kiloluk Bengal kaplanının öyküsünü anlatıyor. Kitabın kahramanı Pi Hinduizm, Hıristiyanlık ve İslamiyet'e derinden bağlı bir karakter. Dolayısıyla kitap, farklı din ve kültürlerden okuyucuları aynı anda etkilemeyi başarıyor. Eleştirmenlere göre 'Life of Pi', 'okurlarının Tanrı'ya inanmasını sağlayacak bir roman'. Booker ödüllü yazar Margaret Adwood'un 'büyükler için bir çocuğun maceraları' olarak tanımladığı roman, 39 yaşındaki Yann Martel'e 50 bin poundluk para ödülü kazandırdı.

 

Life of Pi
 

http://www.sparknotes.com/ 

Context

Yann Martel was born on June 25, 1963, in Salamanca, Spain, to Canadian parents. When Martel was a young boy, his parents joined the Canadian Foreign Services, and the family moved frequently, living in Alaska, France, Costa Rica, Ontario, and British Columbia. Martel went on to study philosophy at Trent University in Ontario, where he discovered a love for writing. After graduating in 1985, Martel lived with his parents and worked a number of odd jobs while continuing to write fiction. He published a collection of short stories, The Facts Behind the Helsinki Roccamatios, in 1993 and a novel, Self, in 1996, but neither book received much critical or commercial attention. In 2002, however, Martel’s international literary reputation was sealed with the publication of Life of Pi, a runaway bestseller that went on to win the prestigious Man Booker Prize (awarded each year to the best English-language novel written by a Commonwealth or Irish author) and had since been translated into thirty languages. Fox 2000 pictures bought the screen rights to Martel’s novel, and a feature film is expected in 2008.

Life of Pi is set against the tumultuous period of Indian history known as the Emergency. In 1975, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi was found guilty of charges related to her 1971 election campaign and was ordered to resign. Instead—and in response to a rising tide of strikes and protests that were paralyzing the government—Gandhi declared a state of emergency, suspending constitutional rights and giving herself the power to rule by decree. The Emergency lasted for eighteen months and was officially ended in March 1977 when Gandhi called for a new round of elections. The historical legacy of the Emergency has been highly controversial: while civil liberties in this emerging democracy were severely curtailed and Gandhi’s political opponents found themselves jailed, abused, and tortured, India’s economy experienced a much-needed stabilization and growth. In Life of Pi, Piscine (Pi) Molitor Patel’s father, a zookeeper in Pondicherry, India, grows nervous about the current political situation. Speculating that Gandhi might try to take over his zoo and faced with depressing economic conditions, Pi’s father decides to sell off his zoo animals and move his family to Canada, thus setting the main action of the novel into motion.

Though only a relatively brief section of Life of Pi is actually set in India, the country’s eclectic makeup is reflected throughout the novel. Pi is raised as a Hindu but as a young boy discovers both Christianity and Islam and decides to practice all three religions simultaneously. In the Author’s Note, an elderly Indian man describes the story of Pi as “a story that will make you believe in God,” and Life of Pi continuously grapples with questions of faith; as an adherent to the three most prominent religions in India, Pi provides a unique perspective on issues of Indian spirituality. India’s diverse culture is further reflected in Martel’s choice of Pondicherry as a setting. India was a British colony for nearly two hundred years, and consequently most of the nation has been deeply influenced by British culture. However, Pondicherry, a tiny city in southern India, was once the capital of French India and as such has retained a uniquely French flavor that sets it apart from the rest of the nation. Perhaps reflecting Yann Martel’s own nomadic childhood, Pi Patel pointedly begins his life in a diverse cultural setting before encountering French, Mexican, Japanese, and Canadian characters along his journey.

Life of Pi can be characterized as a postcolonial novel, because of its post-Independence Indian setting as well as its Canadian authorship. Like many postcolonial novels, such as those of Salman Rushdie and Gabriel García Márquez, Life of Pi can also be classified as a work of magical realism, a literary genre in which fantastical elements—such as animals with human personalities or an island with cannibalistic trees—appear in an otherwise realistic setting. Martel’s novel could equally be described as a bildungsroman (a coming-of-age tale) or an adventure story. Life of Pi even flirts with nonfiction genres. The Author’s Note, for example, claims that the story of Piscine Molitor Patel is a true story that the author, Yann Martel, heard while backpacking through Pondicherry, and the novel, with its first-person narrator, is structured as a memoir. At the end of the novel, we are presented with interview transcripts, another genre of nonfiction writing. This mixing of fiction and nonfiction reflects the twist ending of the novel, in which the veracity of Pi’s fantastical story is called into doubt and the reader, like Pi’s Japanese interrogators, is forced to confront unsettling questions about the nature of truth itself.

Many critics have noted the book’s resemblance to Ernest Hemingway’s novel The Old Man and the Sea. Both novels feature an epic struggle between man and beast. In The Old Man and the Sea, a fisherman struggles to pull in a mighty marlin, while in Life of Pi, Pi and Richard Parker struggle for dominance on the lifeboat. Both the fisherman and Pi learn to respect their animal counterparts; each pair is connected in their mutual suffering, strength, and resolve. Although they are opponents, they are also partners, allies, even doubles. Furthermore, both novels emphasize the importance of endurance. Because death and destruction are inevitable, both novels present life as a choice between only two options: defeat or endurance until destruction. Enduring against all odds elevates both human characters to the status of heroes.

Another, less flattering comparison has been drawn between Life of Pi and acclaimed Brazilian author Moacyr Scliar’s 1981 novel Max and the Cats. In a 2002 interview with Powells.com, Martel discusses reading an unfavorable review of Scliar’s novel in the New York Times Book Review penned by John Updike and, despite Updike’s disparagement, being entranced by the premise. As was later reported, no such review existed, and John Updike himself claimed no knowledge of Scliar’s novel. The similarities between the two novels are unmistakable: in Max and the Cats, a family of German zookeepers sets sail to Brazil. The ship goes down and only one young man survives, stranded at sea with a wild jaguar. Martel claims never to have read Max and the Cats before beginning to write Life of Pi. He has since blamed his faulty memory for the Powells.com gaffe and has declined further discussion on the topic. Scliar considered a lawsuit but is said to have changed his mind after a discussion with Martel. Whatever the real story, Martel mentions Scliar in his Author’s Note, thanking him for “the spark of life.”


Life of Pi

by Yann Martel
Published by Harcourt, Inc.
Review by W. R. Greer


http://www.reviewsofbooks.com/life_of_pi/review/ 

"I turned around, stepped over the zebra and threw myself overboard." This sentence, full of surprise and wonder, jumps out of the middle of Life of Pi. It's indicative of the story Yann Martel tells in this novel, a remarkable story where he makes the unbelievable sound credible. When you stumble across sentences like that, you know you're in the hands of a master storyteller. Yann Martel gives us the story of Piscine Molitor Patel, self-christened as Pi. He drives this name home by saying "Three! Point! One! Four!" to his new classmates after suffering the nickname of Pissing at a previous school. Never mind that his name comes from a swimming pool in France. Pi Patel is an earnest young man in Pondicherry, a tiny area in southern India which was once part of French India (one of the many obscure facts that Yann Martel scatters throughout his story). The first part of the novel tells of Pi's childhood as the son of the zookeeper in Pondicherry. Growing up in the zoo, Pi learns a lot about animals. He educates us in the ways of animals, both penned and wild, and in how to keep them content and controlled. He rails against anthropomorphosis, which is ascribing human emotions and traits to animals. Instead he explains that animals are creatures of habit and once all their needs are met, they're content and willing to repeat the same scenario every day. Upset their routine, even in the smallest of ways, and you have an unhappy animal on your hands. Pi even tells the reader how a lion tamer controls his charges by being the alpha male, asserting his dominance and providing for their needs so they stay submissive to him. It turns out to be a good lesson for Pi to learn as a young man.

As he enters his teen years, Pi goes in search of God. His parents weren't pious people, but growing up in India, Pi was initially a Hindu. When he first encounters Christianity, he finds Jesus lacking in comparison to the Hindu gods, who are grand in stature and history. He comes to embrace Christianity's message of love. Then he discovers Islam, "a beautiful religion of brotherhood and devotion." Pi becomes a devout member of all three religions, content in his newfound sense of God. Once the priest, the pandit, and the imam discover his activities with each other's churches, they confront Pi and his parents and tell him he can't belong to all three and must choose one. The fractious arguing among the three religious leaders over which religion he should choose is the funniest part of the novel. Yann Martel makes them all look simplistic and spiteful as they belittle each other's faith. Pi puts them all in their place with the declaration that he was just trying to love God. His older brother, Ravi, provides a different perspective on it all, suggesting he might try to become a Jew too. "At the rate you're going, if you go to temple on Thursday, mosque on Friday, synagogue on Saturday and church on Sunday, you only need to convert to three more religions to be on holiday for the rest of your life."

The first section of the novel ends with Pi and his family leaving India for Canada. The zoo is closing and the animals are being sent to zoos all around the world. The family and many of the animals board a Japanese cargo ship for their passage to Canada. Pi is 16 and embarking on the trip to a new life. Unfortunately, it wasn't the life he expected. As the first sentence in Part Two of the book says, "The ship sank."

Pi is cast adrift in a lifeboat with a zebra, a hyena, an orangutan, and a huge Bengal tiger named Richard Parker. The first week is a horrific one as the animals battle for survival in the cramped boat and Pi quakes with fear as he tries to avoid being part of the food chain. Eventually, just the tiger and he are left in the boat. The rest of the book is Pi's tale of 227 days at sea. The boat is well stocked for a human, but Pi soon realizes that his only hope for survival is to keep the tiger content and subservient to him. Pi lives in constant terror of Richard Parker, but manages to keep him supplied with fish, turtles, and fresh water so that he doesn't turn on him. Pi spends most of him time in despair, not just emotional, but physical. Yet, at times, he is dazzled by the wonderfulness of God's creation and creatures. He refuses to give up and die and instead lives by his wits and determination. He has to abandon being a vegetarian to survive on anything he can eat, which he finds he attacks with the savagery of a starved animal.

Yann Martel keeps the story of Pi's long voyage moving at an interesting pace. You know from the beginning that Pi will survive, but at times you wonder how he will overcome each challenge he faces. Martel doesn't allow Richard Parker to be anything more than a dangerous Bengal tiger and Pi never to be more than a desperate boy lost at sea. As Pi's long days at sea take a toll on his health and mind, the story begins to strain credulity. Martel then challenges the reader at the end to disbelieve it all. In the end, it becomes a matter of faith.

There are parts of the book that come up short. The book is written as Pi's recollection to the writer researching his story. The first section of the book has short chapters with the writer interacting with the adult Pi. These serve no purpose other than to remind us that this is the adult Pi retelling his story. The writer doesn't surface again until the very end of the book. At times, the teenage Pi sounds like an adult philosopher when lost at sea. If you stretch the point that the novel is Pi retelling the story in his adult voice, you can let it pass. Almost.

These are small nits, though. Reading Life of Pi, you find yourself at the mercy of a great storyteller. Yann Martel will dazzle you with his prose and his mastery of arcane facts, and challenges you to believe his story. You will be left with a better understanding of animals, including man, and much to ponder and question. Life of Pi is a delicious treat to savor.

Copyright © 2002 reviewsofbooks.com

Life of Pi is the winner of the 2002 Man Booker Prize

 

Valid HTML 4.01 Transitional

Valid C