Paul Auster

Görünmeyen

Paul Auster




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Eleştiri sayfasına

16.08.2017

 

Yıkıma uğrayan insanlar, biz onları görsek bile, görünürlüklerini kaybederler. Maurice Blanchot

Editörün Notu: Paul Auster' ın 15. kitabı "Görünmeyen" yirmi yaşındaki Colombia Üniversitesi öğrencisi Adam Walker'ın 1967 yılında başlayarak kırk yıl süresince hayatının izini sürer. Kitap dört bölümde dört ayrı anlatım tekniği ile gelişir. Walker' ın ağzından birinci şahısta yazılan bölümü, "sen" diye devam eden ikinci bölüm izler. Üçüncü bölüm ise "o" bakış açısıyla anlatılır.  Kırk yıl sonrasına uzanan ve girift bir bulmacayı andıran kitap dördüncü bölümde beklenmedik bir son ile çözümlenir.


 

Paul Auster'ın 'Görünmeyen'i üzerine

cumhuriyet.com.tr

Paul Auster'ın kurgusunda, gerçek (her ne olursa olsun) sözcükler arasındaki boşluklarda bulunur; ve son romanı Görünmeyen'de bu boşluklar alışılmışın dışında bir açıklıkta. Roman farklı anılarla şekilleniyor.

(Kitabın konusu) 1967'de Walker, Columbia'da ikinci sınıfta okuyan bir öğrenci, 'bir gün kendine şair diyebilecek kadar iyi olduğu inancına (veya kuruntusuna) sahip cahil bir oğlandır. Bir partide, üniversitenin Uluslararası İlişkiler Fakültesi'ne konuk olan İsveçli profesör Rudolf Born'la ve Born'un sevgilisi ve varoluşsal bir şıklığa bürünmüş sessiz Margot'yla tanışır.

Dostlukları hızla ilerler; ilk buluşmalarında Born, Walker 'benim biyografimi yazma işini halledebilir,' fikrine kapılır ve tekrar görüştüklerinde Walker'ın editörü olacağı bir edebiyat dergisini finanse etmeyi önerir. Born'un yaptığı ve Walker'ın bizzat şahit olduğu aşırı şiddet içeren rasgele bir hareketle sekteye uğrayan Born, Walker ve Margot arasındaki üçlü ilişkinin, yine Born tarafından yapılan koreografisinde hayat denen oyunun zorlu bir öğesi su yüzüne çıkar.

38 yıllık bir ara, hikâyenin ilk kısmını ikincisinden ayırır. Anlatıya Walker'ın Columbia'dan eski bir arkadaşı -ve yazar- olan ve bir gün bir paket teslim alan Jim devam ediyor. Bu pakette kitabın buraya kadar okuduğumuz ilk kısmının metni ve Walker'ın, lösemiden ölmek üzere olduğuna ve anılarına dayanan öyküsünün devamında Jim'in önerilerine ihtiyaç duyduğuna dair açıklamalarını içeren bir mektup var. Buluşmaya karar veriyorlar. Bu sırada Walker Jim'e kitabının bir sonraki bölümü olan 'Yaz'ın müsveddesini gönderiyor.

Bu bölüm, Walker'ın sonbaharda öğrenimine Paris'te devam etmeye başlamadan önce kız kardeşi Gwyn'le aynı daireyi paylaşarak New York'ta geçirdiği 1967 yazını anlatıyor. Walker ateşli bir edebi erotizmin etkisi altında çocukluk anılarından bahsetmeye başlıyor: Küçük erkek kardeşinin kaza sonucu ölümünü ve kız kardeşiyle yaşadığı cinsel deneyimi anlatıyor. Erkek kardeşlerinin ölüm yıldönümünde çift, Walker'ın deyişiyle 'lanetli evliliklerini' gerçekleştiriyor.

Auster'ın romanı, üçüncü bölümü olan 'Sonbahar'da yapısal olarak karmaşık bir hal alıyor. Artık Walker'ın editörü olarak hareket eden Jim, aldığı notları üçüncü şahıs ağzından anlatılan bir hikâyeye dönüştürme görevini üstleniyor. Walker Paris'e gidip tekrar Margot'yla görüşüyor. Hemen ardından, aklına -Born'un New York'taki şiddet içeren hareketinin cezasını verecek bir yol olan- 'şeytani bir fikir' geliyor ve bu sebeple Born'la karşı karşıya geliyor. Born'un niyeti dul olan Hélène Juin'le evlenmek. Walker'ın planıysa kendini Hélène ve Hélène'in kızı Cécile'e sevdirmek ve onlara Born'un tehlikeli geçmişinden söz etmek. Fakat Born'un yırtıcı zekâsı, Walker'ın intikam planlarını onun aleyhine çeviriyor.

Finalde Walker'ın hikâyesindeki karakterler öyküyü kendi yorumlarıyla anlatıyorlar. O sırada orta yaşlı bir edebiyat araştırmacısı olan Cécile Juin, artık uzak bir Karayip adasında yaşayan Born'a yaptığı rahatsız edici ziyareti anlattığı günlüğünü Jim'e yolluyor. Orada kaldığı süre boyunca Born ona tedirgin edici bir teklifte bulunuyor: (kırk yıl önceki ilk buluşmalarında Walker'dan istediği gibi) Cécile'den onun yaşamöyküsünün başyazarı -onun 'Boswell'i- olmasını istiyor. Cécile bu teklifi reddedince, sonunda Born'un bütün çirkinliği açığa çıkıyor ve Cécile oradan ayrılıyor. (Kitap konusunun sonu)

Auster'ın etkileyici kurgusunun yanında, günlük tutma fikri kitaba heyecan verici bir sürükleyicilik katıyor. Roman, kötü ruhlu ana karakteri, ıstırap içindeki kahramanı ve nedense hepsi edilgen olan kadın karakterlerinin yanı sıra, gizli kalmış sırlara düşkünlüğü, raslantılara merakı ve finaldeki grotesk betimlemeleri ile son derece güçlü bir Gotik romantizm esintisi yayıyor.

Auster'ın kitaplarında her zaman olduğu gibi, hikâye kendini yaradılış eylemine kaptırıyor. Walker yazmayan bir yazar, 'Anlaşılmaz, gnostik şiirlerinden' oluşan ilk ve tek kitabını tanımlarken Krapp'ın Son Bandı'ndan şu alıntıyı yapıyor: 'On biri yabancı ülkelerdeki parasız kitap veren kütüphanelere maliyet fiyatından olmak üzere on yedi adet satıldı. Şanım yürüdü.' Sonuçta anı kitabı da redaksiyonda eklenen katmanları yüzünden hiç de 'onun' olmayan bir hâl alıyor. Başka eller tarafından kaleme alınarak varoluyor. Görünmeyen'deki yolculuğun, Auster'ın harika düzyazısının pırıltısını yeniden keşfetmek için yapıldığı hissine kapılıyorsunuz.

Çeviren: Serap Işık,


Invisible by Paul Auster

https://www.theguardian.com/

Joanna Briscoe

Saturday 14 November 2009 00.05 GMT First published on Saturday 14 November 2009 00.05 GMT Paul Auster has created what amounts to his own, self-referential fictional world over the years, and Invisible is packed with typical Auster tropes. This is his 13th novel, and at times he seems to be both celebrating and lightly mocking his own oeuvre. There is the oddly detached male narrator roaming New York; a random dramatic incident that alters the course of a life; ruminations on the nature of writing, language and identity; multiple narrators; stories within stories; and general intertextual gadding about. And, as ever, fragments of Auster himself seem to feature – in this case, divided into two characters.

Invisible concerns the young Adam Walker, "a tormented Adonis", a notably gorgeous and intellectually gifted Jewish American born in the same year as Paul Auster, who studies at the same university. Or does it? And is he? And does he? As so often with such playful meta-fiction, we are increasingly uncertain. As is later revealed, there are different takes on the past, as well as projections of desire that warp or reveal, and Invisible is not so much a tale told by an unreliable narrator as a series of harmonising and clashing testimonies.

However, this makes the novel sound more arcane than it is. It is so well paced that it rocket-charges the reader through all its games and structural devices, and is a tantalising page-turner of great – if deceptive – lucidity. If we follow the initial and most persuasive version of the story, we are in Manhattan in 1967, where Adam Walker, Columbia undergraduate and aspiring poet, meets visiting professor Rudolf Born and his girlfriend Margot. The subject of Vietnam is ever present, and Born is a man of contradictory and frequently explosive political opinions. Born flatters Adam by proposing that he finance a literary magazine to be edited by the gifted student, and so begins an alliance that sees Adam engage in an affair with Margot and witness the increasingly unstable Born murder a young man who threatens him.

The book segues within moments from dinner party chatter to calculated slaughter. This is the incident on which the novel turns, and which skews Adam's life, its legacy of guilt and fury determining the direction he will take. Born, "a burnt-out soul, a shattered wreck of a person", evades arrest by decamping to Paris. Shortly thereafter, Adam follows, clearly subconsciously impelled to seek retribution, and soon he's back in Margot's bed and on Born's radar. Born, with his "blur of sophistication and depravity", is such an extravagantly creepy character, given to brilliance, manipulation and rage, that both his presence and absence cast a shadow over the entire novel. Adam's plot to exact revenge on him is so ill devised that it fails to be entirely convincing.

The story is unexpectedly taken up in 2007 by an acquaintance of Adam's at Columbia, who is now a famous author. Enter Paul Auster Mark II (possibly). Decades are covered in a sketch: the happily married Adam Walker has never achieved literary success, working instead in legal aid as a result of his role in Born's escape from justice, and he is now writing his memoir as fast as he can before he dies. In the chapters and notes he sends to the author, he writes about the death of his brother in childhood, and his own consensual sexual relationship with his sister, an episode that is later reinterpreted by the sister herself.

With the satanic Born still at large, a desperate need to know – that primitive but vital fictional engine – sends the reader scurrying to a conclusion that is more satisfying in terms of its ideas than its emotional resolution. By this time, the voices of the two possible Paul Austers have merged into one, the tale returning to the first person via the second and third, the momentum of menace increasingly powerful. Some of our assumptions come clattering down around us in a strangely satisfying way and, in exposing the mechanics of his storytelling, Auster paradoxically achieves an intensely felt authenticity. This is a fascinating and highly accomplished novel.

 

Love Crimes


http://www.nytimes.com/

By CLANCY MARTINNOV. 12, 2009

As soon as you finish Paul Auster’s “Invisible” you want to read it again. And not because, as sometimes with his novels — as with the novels of Georges Perec, one of a handful of other real authors mentioned in the book — you suddenly suspect, at the very end, that you haven’t properly understood a word of what has gone before. You want to reread “Invisible” because it moves quickly, easily, somehow sinuously, and you worry that there were good parts that you read right past, insights that you missed. The prose is contemporary American writing at its best: crisp, elegant, brisk. It has the illusion of effortlessness that comes only with fierce discipline. As often happens when you are in the hands of a master, you read the next sentence almost before you are finished with the previous one. The novel could be read shallowly, because it is such a pleasure to read.

I was not a fan of Auster’s last few books. “Invisible” is his 15th novel, and I was afraid that this would be, as I felt with his recent work, another instance of Auster playing Auster — a kind of arch exercise in the clever but cloying metaphysics of textual irony, a cat-and-mouse toying with the fiction and the reader reminiscent of German Romanticism and falling victim to what both Hegel and Kierkegaard called “infinite absolute negativity” (this attack on the German Romantics was one of the few times those two were ever in agreement). One leaves the text and feels that one has been left with nothing. The irony vacuums out the content and, with it, our interest. Like the ouroboros, the ancient symbol of a dragon swallowing its own tail, the book consumes itself, and disappears.

But “Invisible” — however the title might threaten the contrary — suggests a new Auster. It’s a love story, or a series of intertwined love stories, with one young man, Adam Walker, at the center of them all. It’s 1967, and we learn on the first page that Adam is “a second-year student at Columbia,” a “know-nothing boy with an appetite for books and a belief (or delusion) that one day I would become good enough to call myself a poet.” So we know we are dealing with a bildungsroman, and as I read the novel I was frequently reminded of the greatest Romantic novel of education about love, Goethe’s “Sorrows of Young Werther” (and relieved that “Invisible” does not end with a suicide). We follow Adam, through the eyes of various narrators, from his youth to reminiscences about him late in his life.

Adam learns about love from four very different characters. There is Rudolf Born, the father figure, a domineering, elemental masculine force who is a professor but most likely also connected with the French or American intelligence underworld, and perhaps a savage killer (the novel relates a brutal murder that may or may not have taken place). There is Born’s lover, a beautiful Frenchwoman named Margot, who is the classic older instructor of Adam as eager young pupil. In Paris, Adam meets Cécile, an innocent, bookish girl, the daughter of a woman Born plans to marry: Cécile falls in love with Adam but the feeling is unreciprocated, so he comes to know that side of it. But how Adam truly climbs the ladder of ta erotika is with his sister, Gwyn.

Adam is about to leave Columbia for a year abroad in Paris, but before he leaves, Adam and Gwyn play a little game they haven’t tried since they were adolescents. “So you test the waters cautiously, baby step by baby step, grazing your mouths against each other’s necks, grazing your lips against each other’s lips, but for many minutes you do not open your mouths, and although you have wrapped your arms around each other in a tight embrace, your hands do not move. A good half hour goes by, and neither one of you shows any inclination to stop. That is when your sister opens her mouth.”

At the very heart of the book, at the end of Part 2 — the novel is divided into four parts, using three narrators and four different narrative perspectives — Adam and Gwyn have a monthlong love affair (she later denies the affair ever happened) that permanently defines Adam’s personality. It’s five or 10 exceptionally beautiful, disturbing pages, and it is occasioned by their mourning the loss of a long-dead younger brother. But this is a love that really dares not speak its name, and it is the key to what is invisible in the novel. Love is always invisible, and in our world of hard-nosed materialists it’s important to remember that our highest good is something we can never really see or grab hold of, much less understand by passing enough people through an f.M.R.I. machine to look at their brainwaves. What we take as the real world is not the world that matters most to us: the substance of our lives takes place in an invisible realm.

That, I suspect, is one of Auster’s reasons for his well-known textual legerdemain — not only to make the aesthetic point that one shouldn’t expect to learn about life and the world from novels, in some sort of practical or moral way (as we suspect his naïve young hero, the failed poet Adam, might have hoped to do); but also, like an ancient skeptic, to have a therapeutic effect on his reader, to bring you to the point of epoché, when your ordinary dogmatic opinions about the external world and literature’s relationship with it are suddenly suspended. For the 20th-century phenomenologist Edmund Husserl — one always hears the voices of philosophers in Auster’s novels, though he keeps them hidden — epoché was the state we had to reach before we could truly examine anything, before we could appreciate and under­stand our experience. Otherwise you see, as we all too often read, with the eyes of habit. Auster wants to pull the rug of real­ism out from beneath your feet so he can bring you a little closer to reality. But in “Invisible” the technique does not overwhelm the story. The characters are not placeholders for philosophical gambits, they are real people. We learn about them, we care about them, we worry about them, we want to know more about them.

For years now there have been two Austers waiting to embrace: the psychologist/­storyteller of novels like “Leviathan,” and the metatextual trickster of “The New York Trilogy.” Freud once claimed that our greatest frustration was that we could never kiss ourselves — well, Auster has knotted the pretzel, he has brought his two loves together (it is, after all, a novel about incest). So if, like me, part of why you read is the great pleasure of falling in love with a novel, then read “Invisible.” It is the finest novel Paul Auster has ever written.


 

https://www.abebooks.com

Paul Auster'in yeni romani Gorunmeyen, dunya elestirmenlerinin degerlendirmesinde yilin en iyi kitaplari arasina alinmakla kalmadi, yazarin en onemli romani olarak da tanimlandi. Paul Auster bu romaninda gercekle bellek, yazarlikla kimlik arasindaki belirsiz siniri irdeleyerek "Amerika'nin en gorkemli yaratici yazarlarindan biri" tanimini gercekten hak ettigini bir kez daha kanitliyor. 1967 baharinda New York'ta baslayan roman, ic ice gecen dort bolum boyunca Paris'e ve Karayip Adalari'na kadar uzanan karmasik bir iliskiler zincirini anlatiyor. Sair olmak isteyen universiteli Adam Walker, siyasal bilimler profesoru Rudolf Born ve sevgilisi Margot ile baslayan ask ucgeni, Walker'in ablasini, Born'un uvey kizini da icine alan dortgenlere, besgenlere donusuyor. Vietnam savasina ofkeli 68 Kusagi'ni, enseste kadar varan coskulu bir cinsel acligi, surekli bir adalet arayisini felsefi gondermelerle oren Gorunmeyen, bir solukta okuyacaginiz ve unutamayacaginiz bir basyapit.

 

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